Recently FRP rebars have been used as an alternative to steel rebars for reinforcement of concrete structures. However in some cases, steel rebars cannot be directly substituted with their FRP analogues, due to differences in their mechanical properties. That is why applicable guidelines shall be followed during designing of FRP-reinforced concrete structures. The most crucial differences, like lower modulus of elasticity and shear strength, limited maximum sustained shear stress of FRP rebars, shall be also considered before designing.


  • ASTM D7957 / D7957M – 17 “Standard Specification for Solid Round Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Bars for Concrete Reinforcement”, ASTM Subcommittee D30.10 on Composites for Civil Structures
  • AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Guide Specifications for GFRP-Reinforced Concrete, Second Edition, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
  • ACI 440.1R-15 (2015) “Guide for the Design and Construction of Structural Concrete Reinforced with Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Bars”, ACI Committee 440, American Concrete Institute
  • ACI 440.3R-12 (2012) “Guide Test Methods for Fiber-Reinforced Polymers (FRPs) for Reinforcing or Strengthening Concrete Structures” ACI Committee 440, American Concrete Institute
  • ACI 440.4R-04 (Reapproved 2011) “Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRP Tendons” ACI Committee 440, American Concrete Institute
  • ACI 440R-07 (2007) “Report on Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures,” ACI Committee 440, American Concrete Institute
  • ACI 440.5-08 (2008) “Specification for Construction with Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Reinforcing Bar”, ACI Committee 440, American Concrete Institute
  • ACI 440.6-08 (2008) “Specification for Carbon and Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Bar Materials for Concrete Reinforcement”, ACI Committee 440, American Concrete Institute


  • CAN/CSA-S807- 10 (R2015) “Specification for Fibre-Reinforced Polymers”, Canadian Standards Association
  • CAN/CSA-S806- 12 (2012) “Design and Construction of Building Components with Fibre- Reinforced Polymers” Canadian Standards Association
  • CAN/CSA-S6- 14 (2014) “Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code” Section 16: Fibre Reinforced Structures, Canadian Standards Association
  • Manual No. 3 “Reinforcing Concrete Structures with Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRPs)”, Dr. Brahim Benmokrane
  • Manual No. 4 “Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Structures with Externally-Bonded Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRPs)”, Dr. Kenneth Neale
  • Manual No. 5 “Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRPs” Dr. Ivan Campbell
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